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代写 China's tourism promotional materials

发布于2020-05-22 作者:留学写作网 阅读:
Abstract] Translation of Chinese tourism promotional materials, the material in the cultural schema are often a great deal of trouble to the translator. From the perspective of schema theory, attempt to analyze the translation of cultural schema when the common problems and to discuss coping strategies under the appropriate circumstances. 

[Key words] China's tourism promotional materials; schema theory; cultural schema 
Abstract: Cultural Schemata often poses great difficulty in the translation of Chinese tourist publicity materials. From the perspective of Schema Theory, this essay tries to analyze the problems translators often encounter in translating cultural schema and to discuss the strategies commonly used in coping with such situations. 
Key words: Chinese tourist publicity material; schema theory; cultural schema
  

reform and opening up, China's tourism industry developed rapidly. China, the mysterious ancient oriental country, with its picturesque landscapes, rich cultural heritage, attracting visitors from around the world. In order to better promote cultural exchange, and promote the development of tourism, more and more Chinese travel information has been translated into English. However, many historic tourist attractions, culture, profound, they load a lot of history and culture for foreign visitors, a complete stranger, and this has brought to the translation of great difficulties. 
This article will use the Chinese translation of schema theory analysis of tourist information in a common cultural schema when the problem of dealing with these problems. 

a, Schema Theory and Translation 

schema theory was first used by the famous philosopher Immanuel Kant (Immanuel Kant) made in 1781. Schema Kant described as the "help us understand the inner structure of the world" [1] 252.1932, the British psychologist Bartlett (FCBartlett) for the first time in his book "Memory" (Remembering) used in Figure type the term, that schema is "In the past the positive reaction or organization of past experience" [2] 201.20 century, 70 years, many linguists and psychologists, such as Minsky (1975), Rumelhart (1980), Carrel and Eisterhold (1988), Eysenck and Keane (1990), etc., the use of schema theory analysis and interpretation of foreign language learning and reading in the process of psychological processes, the formation of the modern schema theory [3] 64. 
modern schema theory suggests that schema is organized around a topic of knowledge representation and storage methods are called by the "variable (variable)" or "channel (slot)" the different parts. It is that discourse does not itself have any meaning, but only to the listener, reader how to construct the direction of intent. When readers encounter a stimulus, the associated schema "channel" is filled, schema is "instantiated" (instantiated), the reader's understanding of the corresponding image formation fishes [4] 31-32. 
schema is divided into linguistic schemata, formal schemata and content schemata. This article will discuss the content schema refers to the "content of the article part of the background knowledge" [5] 79, is very important for the understanding of the article. It contains a topic usually happens within the conceptual knowledge and information. For example: When Chinese readers to read "Chinese New Year" when it is natural to think of family reunion, a festive dinner, paintings, couplets, firecrackers, highly profitable and so on. Content schemata can help the reader through forecasting, information better and faster understanding of selected articles. Content schemata close contact with the culture, therefore, also often called the "cultural schema." 
in translation, the translator's task is to the original information in the translation expressed in the form, so that translation can be activated in the minds of readers of the corresponding schema, to help the reader get the same or similar with the original understanding of the reader. Some scholars have pointed out that "In a sense, can be understood to be translated as 'Schema Translation'" [6] 50. 
cultural schema is the translator of the most difficult problem and needs to be handled carefully. The tourism and cultural information materials can be said to be very concentrated, in the translation process to translate, if not addressed, some of which cultural information is likely because they can not activate the appropriate schema the reader, even difficult to understand the failure 

Second, tourism translation gaps and differences in cultural schemata 

(a) cultural schemata blank (cultural schema default) 
because of geographical, historical and cultural reasons, some very familiar with the concept of a civilization can not exist in another culture entirely, and no corresponding expression. The reader "not an appropriate schema, there is no way to quickly build a Schema" [4] 41, resulting schema blank. 
For example, in appreciation of the cultural heritage of China, foreign tourists will inevitably come into contact with a lot of historical names. These names for the Chinese people are very familiar, but for tourists may be completely unfamiliar to. The following sentence taken from Zhejiang Lanxi Monk Ji Gong Memorial Hall on the introduction: 
Example 1: Chi Kung Robin Hood, loved by the poor people [7]. 
Ji Gong in China is a household name, his image in the minds of Chinese people have also taken root. When Chinese readers to see "Ji Gong" This is a word, their minds Chi Kung schema will be activated - casual clothes, some crazy words, different behavior, hatred for the rich is not benevolent, and concern for the poor and so on. However, Western readers do not know, "Ji Gong" Why promise them. If the sentence directly translated as "Jigong robbed the rich and helped the poor and was deeply loved and esteemed by the impoverished", as the reader of cultural schema of the blank, Western readers will be the surface meaning of a sentence, did not like the Chinese readers produce warm feeling. 
In addition, the long history in China, dynasties is a common phenomenon. Various dynasties of China there is also a schematic of Western tourists blank common cause. For example: 
Example 2: (Utopia), founded in Shanxi, first flourished in the Tang and peak in the Song, Yuan Tai destroyed, when the decline in the Ming and Qing fashionable, depression in the Republic of China, becoming complex in the liberation of large-scale restoration was developed in 1990 [8]. 
PRESIDENT: It was first built in the Jing Dynasty and got more prosperous in the Tang Dynasty and gradually flourished around the Song Dynasty. However, it suffered damages during the Yuan Dynasty. Sometimes it rose and sometimes declined in the Ming and Qing Dynasty . It became desolate during the period of Min Guo and only resorted with state funds after liberation and has been developing in a big way in 1990. 
aside grammatical errors in translation and misuse of the word is not said that the translation did not convey an idea of paradise through dynastic changes, ups and downs of history. For the little knowledge of Chinese history, foreign tourists, because there is no corresponding schema is available, these dynastic names for them, but no sign of any significance. 
(b) of the Cultural Schema Differences (cultural schema disparity) 
Howard pointed out that the schema differences between the "intention of the reader and the author used a different schema to understand the article," [4] 42. This is the translator of Chinese tourism promotional materials for cultural schemata often encountered another problem. In this case, the original author and the reader's schema different, even conflicting.When the reader will understand its own basis of the corresponding schema, but because of cultural differences between China and the West, the same image may be activated in the minds of Western readers a completely different schema. 
Example 3: same time, the lake dug soil, according to the needs of the garden layout piled in the mountains, so that the image of the mountain like a big bat artful ... ... 
asked: In the meantime, the earth dug from the bottom of the lake was piled up on the hill according to a fastidious landscaping plan, turning the hill into what looks like a giant bat fluffing its wings ... [9] 4 
In this translation, the translator seems to faithfully transmit the original information. But the minds of the readers asked activated schema is questionable. In Western countries, "bat" is a kind of ugly creatures, usually with the evil vampire image of a class together. This translation is not only unable to activate the reader familiar with Western cultural schema, but the reader may be in the hearts of a negative impact. Another example: 
Example 4: Han Virtual Church: Qing Yi Park, the Yellow Crane Tower is an imitation of the construction of three pavilions, fame Toad House [9] 68. 
here, "toad" is a traditional Chinese myth of the animals living in the moon, the ancients often used to suggest the moon. Chinese "toad" and English "toad" refers to an animal are the same, but the reader's cultural schema is not in the Chinese readers of these variables. 
travel in the translation of such materials, the translator must take into account the reader's cultural schema, breaking the boundaries of the surface structure of Chinese characters to express the true meaning

 

摘要]中国旅游宣传资料的翻译,在文化架构的材料往往是一个很大的麻烦翻译。从图式理论的角度出发,试图分析翻译文化模式时的常见问题,并在适当的情况下,讨论应对策略。

[关键词]中国的旅游宣传资料;图式理论;文化模式
摘要:文化图式往往带来极大的困难,中国的旅游宣传材料的翻译。从图式理论的角度看,这篇文章试图分析问题翻译人员经常会遇到在翻译文化模式,并讨论常用的策略应对这种情况。
关键词:中国的旅游宣传材料;图式理论的文化模式
  
改革开放以来,中国旅游业的迅速发展。中国,神秘的东方古国,其如诗如画的风景,丰富的文化底蕴,吸引了来自世界各地的游客。为了更好地促进文化交流,促进旅游业的发展,越来越多的中国旅游信息已被翻译成英文。然而,许多历史悠久的旅游景点,文化,博大精深,加载了很多的历史和文化对于外国游客来说是一个完全陌生,这带来了很大的困难翻译。
本文将使用中国的旅游信息翻译模式理论分析时,在共同的文化模式的问题,处理这些问题。
 
一,图式理论与翻译
 
图式理论最早是由著名哲学家康德在1781年(康德)。架构康德形容为“帮助我们了解世界的内部结构”[1],第一次在他的著作“记忆体英国心理学家巴特莱特(FCBartlett)的”(记住)图型使用的术语,该架构252.1932 “在过去的积极反应或组织以往的经验”[2] 201.20世纪70年代以来,许多语言学家和心理学家,如明斯基(1975),鲁梅哈特(1980),卡雷尔和Eisterhold(1988),艾森克和基恩(1990)等,利用图式理论分析和解释外语学习和阅读的心理过程,在这个过程中形成的现代图式理论[3] 64。
现代图式理论认为,组织架构围绕一个主题的知识表示和存储方法,被称为“变量(变量)”或“通道(槽)”的不同部分。这是话语本身没有任何意义,但只到听者,读者如何建构方向的意图。当读者遇到的刺激,相关的“通道”模式被填满,架构“实例”(实例),读者的理解,相应的图像形成鱼[4] 31-32。
模式分为语言图式,形式图式,内容图式。本文将讨论的内容架构是指“内容的文章的背景知识”[5] 79,对文章的理解是非常重要的。它包含一个主题通常发生在概念性的知识和信息。例如:当中国读者阅读“中国新年”,当它是很自然的想到家人团聚,团年饭,绘画,贴春联,放鞭炮,高利润等。内容图式可以帮助读者通过预测,信息更好更快地了解所选文章。因此,内容图式与文化的密切接触,也常常被称为“文化模式”。
中译本,译者的任务是原来的翻译的形式表达出来的信息,所以,翻译可以激活相应的架构读者心目中,帮助读者获得相同或相似的,原来的理解读卡器。有学者指出,“从某种意义上讲,可以理解为被翻译为”模式翻译'“[6] 50。
文化模式是翻译的最困难的问题,需要小心处理。旅游和文化信息材料,可以说非常集中,在翻译过程中,翻译,如果不加以解决,其中一些文化信息很可能因为他们不能激活相应的模式,读者,甚至难以了解故障。
 
其次,旅游文化图式的翻译存在的差距和分歧
 
(一)文化图空白(文化模式默认)
由于地理,历史和文化的原因,一些文明的概念非常熟悉,不能存在于另一种文化完全消失,而没有相应的表达。读者“不是一个合适的模式,有没有办法快速建立模式”[4] 41,​​得到的模式空白。
例如,在欣赏中国的文化遗产,外国游客难免会接触到了很多历史的名字。这些名字对于中国人来说是非常熟悉的,但对游客可能是完全陌生的。下面的句子取自浙江兰溪济公纪念馆的介绍:
例1:池西贡罗宾汉,深受穷人[7]。
济公在中国是一个家喻户晓的名字,他的形象在中国人心目中扎根。当中国读者看到“济公”这是一个字,他们的头脑驰西贡模式将被激活 - 休闲服,一些疯狂的话,不同的行为,对富人的仇恨,不仁者,关注不畅等。然而,西方的读者不知道,“济公”为什么答应他们。如果句话直接翻译为“急攻抢富人帮助穷人,并深深喜爱和贫困”的推崇,文化架构的空白,西方读者的读者将是一个句子表面的意思,也没有像中国读者产生温暖的感觉。
此外,在中国历史悠久,历朝历代是一种常见的现象。中国各朝代也有西方游客的示意图空白的常见原因。例如:
例2:(乌托邦),在山西成立,兴盛于唐,宋峰,元泰摧毁,当下降明清款式新颖,抑郁症的中华民国,成为复杂的大解放在1990年开发规模的恢复[8]。
主席:这是第一次建于魏晋,变得更加繁荣于唐代,宋代各地逐渐兴盛起来。然而,它在元代遭受损害。有时上升,有时下降明清。郭闽期间,它成为荒凉,只使出了解放后国家资金已经于1990年发展的一大途径。
抛开语法错误,翻译和误用的字不说,翻译没有传达天堂的想法通过翻天覆地的转变,跌宕起伏的历史。小知识,中国历史,外国游客,因为没有相应的架构,为他们的这些王朝的名字,但没有任何意义的标志。
(二)文化图式的差异(文化模式的差距)
霍华德指出,“意向的读者和作者之间的架构差异采用不同的架构来理解文章,”[4] 42。这是中国文化图式的旅游宣传资料翻译中经常遇到的另一个问题。在这种情况下,原来的作者和读者的模式不同,甚至是相互矛盾的。当读者将了解它自己的基础,相应的模式,但由于中国和西方之间的文化差异,在西方读者的头脑中一种完全不同的模式,相同的图像可能会被激活。
例3:同时,湖取土,堆在山的园林布局的需要,从而使图像的山像一个大蝙蝠巧妙的... ...
问:在此期间,地球从湖底挖堆积在山上一个挑剔的美化计划,把成什么样子像一个巨大的蝙蝠翅膀起毛山... [9] 4
在这个翻译,译者似乎原来忠实地传递信息。但心目中的读者问激活的模式是值得商榷的。在西方国家,“蝙蝠”是一种丑陋的生物,通常与邪恶的吸血鬼形象一起上课。这种翻译不仅无法激活读者熟悉西方文化模式,但读者可能会在心中产生负面影响。又如:
例4:涵虚堂:清漪园,黄鹤楼是模仿成名蟾蜍楼建设三个展馆,[9] 68。
在这里,“蟾蜍”的动物生活在月亮是一个传统的中国神话,古人常使用建议的月亮。中国的“蛤蟆”和英文的“蛤蟆”是指动物是一样的,但读者的文化模式是不是这些变量在中国的读者。
旅游这种材料的翻译,译者必须考虑到读者的文化模式,打破界限的表面结构的汉字表达的真正含义
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