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Thesis代写经济条件下社会需求导向机制研究

发布于2020-09-22 作者:留学写作网 阅读:
Lack of coordination on economic and social development, particularly social development lags behind the problem, people are accustomed to criticism of bias as the backwardness of economic development, and thus questioned the economic development objectives of the misconduct, and human reflect on economic development, but it seems reluctant to reflect on their own consumer behavior. Suffered economic development has been criticized, in fact, rooted in economic development objectives misconduct irrational social needs, and social needs of the non-rational society rooted in the absence of demand-driven mechanism, which is essentially passive rational society as a whole does not act, conniving Individual irrational demand for economic development misleading.
First, the absence of social demand-oriented mechanism to mislead the goal of sustained economic development
 The fundamental goal of economic activity or the ultimate goal is to meet society's consumer demand, consumer demand for both substances, including spiritual and cultural consumption. Only to meet social needs, economic activity was only proved to be co-purposeful activity, only to meet consumer demand for social, economic activity was obtained from the social value of compensation and in-kind replacement, but also will prove to be the activities of regularity. Therefore, economic activity must accept the provisions of the needs of society, or not be able to continue, is not worth going. Visible and sustained economic development and social needs are closely related to the needs of the community association epitomized the guiding role in economic development, namely economic development, social needs required a reasonable target. However, the social demand guiding role in economic development, in particular the needs of society by providing economic development goals to guide sustainable economic development is conditional, that is, the whole of human rationality as the leading establishment of mechanisms for demand-oriented society.
In the planned economy system, China's production and consumption activities are arranged by the national plan, the lack of change in the interaction between the two rigid program management has also been blocked, consumer demand for the production of the guiding role of being concealed. Since reform and opening, China's initially established a socialist market economic system, a variety of economic relations through the market quickly and effectively link up, which for the consumer guide production, demand to create the conditions for incentive provision. However, China's current social needs-oriented mechanism does not really set up. Prominent features are: first, the social consumption demand is still characterized by the individual consumer demand, lack of guidance and society as a whole rational norms, often with a non-rational characteristics, Professor Li Yining in the "Ethical Issues in Economics," a book cited six kinds of consumer behavior contrary to social norms, including the extravagant consumption, stingy, thrifty, precocious consumption, conspicuous consumption, and consumer Vulgar, etc. [1] 136-153 these to the individual consumer awareness and behavior from society heterozygous Consumer needs are often irrational. Second, the individual consumer awareness and behavior is decentralized, mutual interference, it is difficult to form a clear and consistent social consumption demand signal, vague instructions on economic development, on economic activity disturbance, guiding role is weakened. In effect, uneven economic structure, it is difficult to form the structure and industrial advantages, restricting economic development to improve the quality. Third, individuals tend to spend more immediate concerns while ignoring long-term interests, local interests while ignoring more attention to the overall interests are more concerned about their own interests while ignoring the interests of society, and thus tend to meet their individual consumption of consumer demand as power consumption, compared with less consider this individual consumer behavior on others, society and the fundamental interests of their own long-term interests. Fourth, the individual consumer demand is unstable, the individual consumer demand not only by religion, culture, education, customs, consumer ideas and other "inert" factors, so that the individual consumer needs to maintain a certain stability, while individual consumer demand Also vulnerable to consumer psychology, such as comparisons of psychological, mental sport, fashion, psychology and other "active" factors, so that the individual changes in consumer demand informality, elusive. With the growing wealth of the modern market supply and consumer culture, and the ever-changing consumer psychology, consumer demand affecting the activity of individual factors over the role of inert factors that lead to consumer demand instability become more apparent.
    Oriented economic development and social needs are closely related. Marx said: "luxury is the opposite of natural necessity. Necessary natural needs is itself the subject of the kind attributed to individual needs. Production development both abandon this natural necessity, but also abandoning the kind of luxury.}.} A7 zo Therefore, the absence of social needs-oriented mechanism to mislead goal of economic development, and thus have a serious constraint to sustainable economic development. individual irrational consumption, especially excessive consumption caused by economic expansion, increasing population, resources and environment tensions, weakening sustainable economic development capacity; scattered individual consumer demand characteristics, so difficult to unify economic development objectives, a clear, mutual interference of economic activity, internal friction, reducing the effectiveness of economic development; individual consumer demand for the development of the instability of the economy face greater uncertainty nature, take more risks, economic development, lack of a stable market environment.
Second, the social needs of the constituent elements of the guide mechanism
Needs of the community-oriented mechanism resulting in the absence of a variety of factors that influence consumer demand is difficult to form a cohesive force, consumer demand is difficult to society as a whole in the form of a rational consumer demand in favor of individual irrational consumer demand. "Consumption is a virtuous cycle of economic hub or poor circulatory point", ['] "Therefore, if consumer demand towards a rational from the irrational, the individual consumer demand toward social consumption demand factors must be integrated to a variety of consumer, the formation of social demand-oriented mechanisms to rational factors bind irrational factors, scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumer behavior integrated into rational, science, health, social consumer behavior, so that the goal of economic development more clearly, science, reasonable guide to achieve sustained economic development.
    Social demand-oriented mechanism consists of three elements, namely consumption concept, the consumption structure and consumption demand (Figure 1) a
First, the concept of consumption, ie consumption concept, is that people held under certain historical conditions to treat some of the fundamental principles of consumer and concepts, such as the Chinese people's long-held consumer frugality is a traditional concept of consumption, and in recent years from excessive consumption abroad, loan or overdraft consumer spending is a new concept of consumption. Factors affecting consumer concept is mostly philosophical level of cognitive science and cognitive concepts, such as the ecological civilization, consumer culture, consumer ethics. Concept of consumption should be generally recognized and accepted social scientific, civilized and rational consumer principles and concepts, but also society as a whole embodies the rational consumption.
    Second, the consumption structure. Consumption structure refers to the composition of consumption structure of an object that can be used a variety of consumer proportional relationship between the objects represented. According to the different main consumer, consumption structure and consumption structure can be divided into individual consumption structure of society. (A) ioa social consumption structure and consumption structure of individual factors vary, their formation, evolution, changes in the law there are certain differences. In contrast, the consumption structure of society greatly influenced by macroeconomic factors, such as consumer culture, consumption concept, the production structure, showing a significant ethnic, regional, stability and other characteristics; while individual consumption structure is often subject to consumer psychology activity factors, showed hyperactivity, personalization features.
Third, the consumer demand. Consumer demand is the consumer purchasing power in certain conditions, consumer desires. Broad consumer demand is the consumer's desire, may refer to the ability to buy - that is being met through the purchase of real desire for consumption, can also refer to the propensity to consume or consumption of pure imagination, but this consumer purchasing power due to lack of imagination support , which is unrealistic, but conditions improved in the purchasing power of the consumer imagination could be transformed into reality consumer demand. Purchasing power due to the conditions of constraint, the reality must have a clear consumer demand and consumer spending targeting quantity limits. Consumer demand and the limited nature of the target point is an important feature.
    Consumer-oriented mechanism concept in the social demand the highest level of living, social concentrated reflection of overall consumer rationality, reflecting the consumption of a given period of civilization, society has an important consumer guide, demonstration and regulations made available, resulting in a relatively stable period of time consumption structure. Consumption structure formation and stability of the carrier of social consumption concept, the reaction and the scientific concept of consumption refraction and rationality level.
Concept of consumption on the consumer's choice of target more indirect, and its mode of action and the effect is not stable. Of course, the concept of consumption of individual consumer demand, there are two direct impact on the way. First, the concept of consumption direct guidance and constraints individual consumer demand, which depends on consumer self-awareness and acceptance of the concept.
Second, the state and society through non-market means the direct consumption concept
Internalized into individual consumer demand, the common approach is mandatory spending, such as government primary and secondary schools to improve physical fitness, unified way to educate executive order to impose the "breakfast milk" consumption.
    With the concept of consumption and the effect of the mode of action compared to the consumption structure for a more direct impact on consumer demand, the effect is more pronounced because of the consumption structure of social groups is the concentrated reflection of consumer demand, but also after long-term formation of consumer groups, consumer behavior The objective results, and thus individual consumers have a direct role in guiding consumer choice. Consumers are often subject to individual consumer behavior consumer psychology herd effect, making the consumer behavior and habits of others for their own consumption choices have a demonstration effect, once the herd consumption, consumption habits will be the way to the individual consumer behavior of individuals to be cured.
    Of course, consumer demand will turn on the consumption structure and consumption concept formation and development of the role of the interaction between the three correlation is strong. However, the mechanism of view, consumption concept reflects consumer civilization, and guide rational consumption behavior of social groups to form a stable structure of consumption, on this basis, through the consumption of consumer behavior and psychological factors that affect the role of the individual, and further guide the individual consumer choice. Such collective action from concept to individual action and then to make a rational social consumer demand been consistently so scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumption tends to be scientific, rational, stable, so that the goal of social consumer demand clear and consistent, which needs of the community-oriented mechanism is an entire logical system. The establishment of mechanisms for internal logic of strict economic development aimed to send a clear signal that economic development must meet the needs of society as a rational target for economic development but also to pursue improper draw the red line development goals.
    Third, the social demand-oriented mechanism to sustained economic development objectives rational
    Needs of the community-oriented mechanism aims to ensure that the needs of society rational, in order to achieve sustained economic development goals correct guidance. Therefore, the role of social needs-oriented mechanism can be broken down as follows: ensuring social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, that promote scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate social consumption demand; possible to eliminate the individual consumer attitudes and consumer behavior dispersion, mutual interference, rational consumer demand to achieve social goals clear and uniform; economic activity to send a clear social demand signals to guide economic development to establish a scientific and reasonable goals.
    First, the consumption concept to guide social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, thereby protecting the rational goal of sustained economic development. Reflect society as a whole concept of rational social spending should have at least four characteristics, namely, scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate. The scientific concept of consumption is the consumption behavior to follow the laws of science. Scientific concept of consumption is the cornerstone of rational consumption concept. Consumption concept of civilization, referring to consumer concept of ecological civilization, economic ethics, economic philosophy and other important carrier of scientific epistemology is about people, people and society, man and nature, as well as "a social an economic nature" and other major relationship cognitive outcomes concentrated reflection. Rational consumption concept of civilization is the highest form of consumption concept. Healthy consumption concept refers to people's consumption behavior must be to improve the quality of human survival and development as the goal, that is, people want to live a healthy and dignified. Healthy consumption concept is the fundamental concept of rational consumption purport, is to determine whether a rational consumption concept fundamental criteria. Moderate consumption concept of social consumer behavior is controlled in the appropriate limits. Put forward the concept of moderate consumption of traditional consumption concept presents challenges, namely excessive human consumption is harmful for human consumption and behavior is irrational desires should converge or prohibited. Can be summed up in one sentence: human rights do not have unlimited spending. Scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate consumption concept will ensure that the needs of society remain rational state, so that economic development to establish rational goals.
    Second, the consumption structure to guide scattered individual propensity to consume propensity to consume unified into society as a whole, economic development, and thus convey to clear and consistent signals to guide the sustainable economic development to establish rational goals. Practice has proved that the consumption structure by consumer culture, consumer fashion, consumer spending trends and other established standards and consumption patterns, and guide consumers to imitate behavior; either through competition, herding, sporting and other consumer psychology, prompting consumers herd consumption; or through Consumer reaction production, consumption structure triggered - production structure adjustment, thereby forcing consumers not established mandatory consumption targets consumer choice, and that the market does not provide the supply to meet consumer other consumer choices.
 
对经济社会发展的不协调,尤其是社会发展滞后问题,人们习惯偏至于批判经济发展方式的落后,进而质疑经济发展目标的失当,而人类在反思经济发展的同时,却似乎不太情愿反思自身的消费行为。经济发展饱受垢病,其实经济发展目标的失当根源于社会需求的非理性,而社会非理性需求则根源于社会需求导向机制的缺位,这实质上是社会整体理性的消极不作为,纵容个体非理性需求对经济发展的误导。 
首先,缺乏社会需求为导向的机制来误导经济持续发展的目标
 经济活动的根本目标或最终目标是为了满足社会的消费需求,消费需求,这两种物质,包括精神和文化消费。只有满足社会需求,唯一的经济活动被证明是共同目的的活动,只有满足消费者的需求,获得社会,经济活动的社会价值补偿和实物替换,也将被证明是活动规律性。因此,经济活动必须接受社会需求的规定,或无法继续,是不是值得去。可见,经济持续发展和社会的需求是密切相关的社会各界的需要,协会体现在经济发展中的导向作用,即经济发展,社会需要一个合理的目标。然而,社会需求导向,在经济发展中的作用,尤其是社会的需求,通过提供经济发展目标,以引导经济的可持续发展是有条件的,那就是整个人类理性为主导的社会需求为导向,建立机制。
在计划经济体制下,中国的生产和消费活动是由国家计划安排的变化缺乏在两个刚性项目管理之间的互动也被封锁,消费需求对生产的指导作用被掩盖。改革开放以来,我国初步建立了社会主义市场经济体制,各种经济关系的迅速和有效地通过市场连接起来,这对于的消费者指导生产,需求创造了条件,提供激励。然而,中国目前的社会需求为导向的机制并没有真正成立。突出的特点是:第一,社会消费需求的特点仍然是个人消费需求,缺乏指导和社会作为一个整体合理的规范,往往是一种非理性的特点,厉以宁教授在“经济学的伦理问题,”一本书列举了6种消费行为相反的社会规范,包括奢侈消费,吝啬,节俭,早熟消费,炫耀性消费,消费者俗,等[1] 136-153,这些个人的消费意识和行为,从社会杂合消费者的需求往往是不合理的。二,个人消费意识和行为是分散的,相互干扰,就很难形成一个明确的,一贯的社会消费需求的信号,对经济发展的含糊指示,对经济活动的干扰,引导作用被削弱。实际上,不均衡的经济结构,它是难以形成的结构,产业优势,制约经济发展以提高质量。第三,个人往往要花费更直接的关注​​,而忽视了长远利益,局部利益,而忽视了更注重整体利益,更关心自己的利益,而忽略了社会的利益,因而往往满足其个性化的消费现状,消费功耗的需求,比较少考虑这个个人消费行为对他人,社会和自己的长远利益的根本利益。四,个体消费者的需求是不稳定的,个体消费者的需求不仅受到宗教,文化,教育,海关,消费者的想法和其他的“惰性”因素,使个别消费者的需要保持一定的稳定性,而个人消费需求也脆弱的消费心理,如攀比心理,精神运动,时尚,心理学和其他“积极”的因素,使个体消费者的需求变化不拘,难以捉摸。随着现代市场供应和消费文化的日益丰富,以及千变万化的消费心理,消费需求的个别因素影响的活动的作用的惰性,导致消费需求不稳定的因素变得更加明显。
    外向型经济的发展和社会的需要,是密切相关的。马克思说:“奢华的对立面是自然需要必要的自然需要,是本身的主题归结为个性化需求的一种生产发展都放弃这种自然的必要性,同时也放弃了一种奢侈。}} A7 ZO因此,社会需求为导向的机制误导经济发展目标,从而缺乏严重制约经济的可持续发展。个别不合理的消费,特别是过度消费引起的经济扩张,人口不断增加,资源和环境的紧张,削弱了经济可持续发展容量,分散的个体消费者的需求特点,所以很难统一经济发展目标,明确,相互干扰的经济活动,内部摩擦,降低经济发展的有效性;个人消费需求的不稳定的经济发展面临较大的不确定性自然,冒更大的风险,经济发展缺乏一个稳定的市场环境。
第二,引导机构的构成要素的社会需要
需要面向社会机制,在多种因素影响消费者的需求是难以形成合力的情况下,消费者的需求是难以向社会作为一个整体的形式理性消费需求,有利于个别不合理消费者的需求。 “消费是经济中心的良性循环或循环不佳点”,[']“因此,如果消费者从非理性走向理性的需求,个人消费需求向社会消费需求的因素必须被集成到各种消​​费,社会需求为导向的机制,以理性的因素结合形成非理性的因素,分散,相互干扰,不稳定融入理性,科学,卫生,社会消费行为的个人消费行为,使经济发展的目标更加清晰,科学,合理引导实现经济持续发展。
    社会需求为导向的机制包括三个要素,即消费观念,消费结构和消费需求(图1)
首先,在概念的消费,即消费的概念,是举行,在一定的历史条件下,以治疗的根本原则,消费者和概念,如中国人的长期持有的消费者节俭的人,是一个传统的消费观,并在近年来从国外过度消费,贷款或透支消费支出是一种新的消费观念。消费理念的影响因素主要是哲学层面的认知科学和认知的概念,如生态文明,消费文化,消费伦理。消费理念应该被普遍认可和接受的社会科学,文明,理性的消费原则和概念,但社会作为一个整体也体现了理性消费。
    其次,消费结构。消费结构是指消费结构的组成,可用于各种消费之间的比例关系表示的对象的对象。根据不同的消费主力,消费结构和消费结构可分为个人消费的社会结构。 (A)IOA社会消费结构和消费结构的个别因素各不相同,它们的形成,演变,变化的规律,也有一定的差别。相比之下,受宏观经济因素,如消费文化,消费观念,生产结构,呈现显着的民族,区域,稳定等特点,而个人消费结构往往受消费者心理活动因素极大地影响了社会的消费结构,表现为多动,个性化的功能。
第三,消费者的需求。消费者的需求是消费者的购买力,在一定条件下,消费欲望。广阔的消费需求是消费者的愿望,可能是指购买能力 - 那是被满足通过购买消费的真实愿望,也可以参考的倾向消费或消费凭空想像,但这个消费者购买电源因缺乏想象力的支持,这是不现实的,但条件改善消费者想象力的购买力可能转化为现实消费需求。现实的购买力,由于约束条件,必须有一个明确的目标数量限制的消费需求和消费支出。消费者的需求和目标点的有限性是一个重要特征。
    以消费者为导向机制的概念在社会需求的最高水平的生活,社会整体消费理性的集中反映,反映一定时期内文明的消费,社会具有重要的消费引导,示范和法规,导致在一个相对稳定一段时间消费结构。消费结构的载体,社会消费观念,消费折射和理性水平的反应和科学发展观的形成和稳定。
消费者的选择目标更间接的消费,其作用方式和效果的概念并不稳定。当然,个人消费需求,消费观念,有两个直接影响的方式。首先,消费的直接指导和约束个别消费者的需求,这取决于消费者的自我意识和接受的概念的概念。
其次,通过非市场手段对国家和社会的直接消费观念
内化为个人的消费需求,常用的方法是强制消费,如政府中小学,以提高身体素质,统一的方式来教育行政命令强加的“早餐奶”的消费。
    随着概念的消费和消费结构相比,消费者的需求更直接的影响的作用方式的效果,效果更加明显,因为社会群体的消费结构,消费需求的集中反映,也经过长期形成的消费群体,消费行为的客观结果,因而个人消费者在引导消费者的选择有直接的作用。消费者往往受到个人消费行为,消费心理从众效应,使得他人的消费行为和习惯,为自己的消费选择产生示范效应,一旦从众消费,消费习惯将是个人对个人的消费行为被治愈。
    当然,消费者的需求将开启的消费结构和消费观念的形成和发展三者之间的相关性的互动的作用是强大的。然而,这一机制来看,消费观念的反映消费者的文明,并引导理性消费行为的社会群体,形成一个稳定的消费结构,在此基础上,通过消费的消费行为和心理因素会影响个人的作用,进一步引导个体消费者的选择。从概念到个人行动,然后做出一个理性的社会消费需求一直如此分散的这种集体行动,相互干扰,不稳定的个人消费趋于科学,合理,稳定,使社会消费需求的目标明确和一贯的,需要面向社会机制是一个完整的逻辑体系。严格的经济发展的内在逻辑机制的设立,旨在发出一个明确的信号,作为一个理性的经济发展目标,经济发展必须满足社会的需求,而且要追求不当划红线的发展目标。
    第三,社会需求为导向的机制,以经济持续发展的目标合理
    需要面向社会机制,旨在确保社会理性的需求,以实现经济的持续发展目标的正确指导。因此,社会需求导向机制的作用,可以分解如下:确保社会消费需求的反映作为一个整体,一个理性的社会,提倡科学,文明,健康,适度的社会消费需求;可以消除个人消费态度消费行为分散,相互干扰,合理的消费需求,实现社会的目标明确和统一的经济活动,社会发出一个明确的需求信号,引导经济发展,建立一套科学合理的目标。
    首先,消费观念,引导社会消费需求反映一个理性的社会作为一个整体,从而保障经济持续发展的合理的目标。反映社会作为一个整体合理的社会支出的概念,应该有至少有四个特点,即科学,文明,健康的,适度的。科学的消费观念,消费行为,遵循科学规律。科学的消费观念,理性消费理念的基石。文明的消费理念,指的是消费理念生态文明,经济伦理,经济哲学和其他科学认识论的重要载体,是人与人,人与社会,人与自然,以及“社会的经济性质”和其他主要关系的认知结果的集中反映。文明理性的消费观念,消费观念的最高形式。健康的消费观念是指人们的消费行为,必须是人类生存和发展以提高质量为目标,那就是人们想要一个健康和有尊严的生活。健康的消费观念是理性消费的基本概念主旨,是要确定是否理性消费观的根本标准。适度消费观念的社会消费行为控制在适当的限制。提出适度消费的概念,传统的消费观念提出了挑战,即人类食用过多是有害的供人类消费行为是不合理的欲望应该收敛或禁止。可以概括起来就是一句话:没有人权无限的支出。科学,文明,健康,适度的消费观念将确保社会的需求保持理性状态,使经济的发展,制定合理的目标。
    其次,消费结构,引导消费分散的个体倾向消费倾向统一到社会作为一个整体,经济发展,从而传达明确和一贯的信号,引导经济的可持续发展,制定合理的目标。实践已经证明,消费结构,消费文化,消费时尚,消费者的消费趋势和其他既定标准和消费模式,引导消费者模仿行为;无论是通过竞争,放牧,体育和其他消费者的消费心理,促使消费者从众消费;通过消费者反应生产,消费结构的触发 - 生产结构的调整,从而迫使消费者没有建立强制消费的目标消费者选择,市场不提供电源,以满足消费者的其他消费选择。

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