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按部就班写作thesis的七大建议

发布于2020-09-22 作者:留学写作网 阅读:
A writer peering ahead at an academic writing project should respect the task. It not only will require research and writing abilities, it will tax the writer’s endurance and concentration. Learning to become efficient and self-regulating as a researcher and writer is the reason for this series, “7 Ways to Pace Yourself through a Paper.” Each of the suggestions will be presented on the TPS Fan page before being compiled. 
若您即将致力于学术写作专题,应该好好重视这项工作。这不仅需要研究与写作技巧,也仰赖毅力与专注。「按部就班写作论文的七大步骤」将教您学会如何自律,提高研究与写作的效率。每项建议都会刊登在 TPS 粉丝专页,并在最后集结于 TPS 学术电子报中。 

Way # 1 – Recognize pacing and admit you need it
建议一:了解按部就班的重要

Academic paper projects are not 100-meter dashes. They are marathons. They require intellectual and physical stamina. A writer who understands this stands a far better chance of completing a paper with the same levels of energy and inspiration shown at the beginning of a project. This is a significant advantage, because finishing a paper well is as vital as starting it properly. Burning out, getting off track, lowering standards—these are the results of a writer not pacing himself.
学术论文专题不是百米赛跑,而是马拉松,必须持续投入智力与体力。写作时若能了解这点,就比较有机会,能持续发挥专题写作之初的精力与灵感,完成整篇论文。这是个很大的好处,因为有个精彩的结尾与起头出色一样重要。如果无法按部就班地前进,往往落得精疲力竭、偏离路径、草率了事。

Returning to the running metaphor, sprinters are as strong as long-distance runners. They are as skilled. But they are not conditioned to endure an extended run. In the same way, wonderful essay exam-takers are not necessarily adept at in-depth writing projects. They might lack research skills, the ability to write complex explanations and analyses, or the talent to stay on course over weeks and months of exploring a subject. This is why academic writing assignments are called projects.
回到跑步的暗喻。短跑选手和长跑选手一样,他们强健有力,也一样技巧精湛,但他们却不适合长跑。同样地,短文比赛的常胜军也不一定善于深入的写作专题,他们可能缺乏研究技巧,无法应付复杂的阐释与分析,也不擅于持续几周甚至几个月,坚持到底探讨一个主题。所以学术写作才称为「专题」。

So the wisest approach to a “project” is to realize that planning is required to ensure that the project does not overwhelm the writer during its middle or late stages. To acknowledge this possibility is a sign of maturity as a writer. Though you as a writer might be especially bright, brilliance will not overcome disorganization or lack of fortitude. Whereas intellectual vigor coupled to a sustainable work pace can carry a writer across the finish line in a winning effort. 
因此,进行一个「专题」最聪明的办法,就是知道必须仰赖规划,以确保作者不会在专题途中或最后关头江郎才尽,半途而废。能了解这一点,就表示作者成熟了。即使在写作时特别文思泉涌,也无法以才气克服漫无章法与缺乏毅力的弱点。写作时除了尽心思考,还必须结合可长可久的工作步调,才能志在必得,冲过胜利的终点线。

Way # 2 – Embrace deadlines and use them
建议二:善用截止期限

Every project of every kind—physical or intellectual—has a starting date and a finishing date. The author of a paper can’t begin until a topic is assigned or approved, at which point the clock starts ticking. A date to turn in the paper also is given, which is when the work must be completed. While these two mileposts are helpful in guiding the overall progress of a paper, they are too far apart to keep a writer on course. Interim deadlines are the critical benchmarks.
所有类型的每个专题,无论是必须动脑或动手,都有开始与截止的日期。题目被指派或通过核准后,就能开始写作论文,从那时候起时钟就滴滴答答开始计时了。缴交论文的日期,也就是工作该完成的时候。开始与截止就像两个里程碑,有助引导论文的整体进展,但这两个时间相距太远,无法帮助论文写作按计划进行。期中截止期限反而是更重要的指标。

The midpoint deadlines may vary according to the kind of paper being written. They also might be assigned by a professor with the expectation that the writer will show evidence at each checkpoint of continuing progress. Or a self-reliant writer might take the initiative to establish interim deadlines of his own. Whichever is the case, the interim goals—research done, outline created, first draft completed, and so on—can keep a writer steadily moving ahead.
随着写作的论文类型不同,期中截止期限也不一样。期限可能由教授订立,希望学生在每个时间点证明论文有持续的进展;若是独立写作论文,作者也可以主动订立自己的期中截止期限。不论是哪一种期限,目标或许是完成研究工作、写出大纲、完成论文初稿等等,都能让写作者不断向前迈进。

A seasoned writer will see these interim deadlines as stepping stones, as helpful indicators of a project being on schedule… or not. They let a writer know when he can take a breather from the project or when he needs to put in some overtime. By maintaining a steady pace, the writer will not have to make up ground in a hurry. That kind of crunch-time research and writing should be avoided because it never results in a writer’s best work. Use interim deadlines to pace yourself.
对经验丰富的作者来说,这些期中截止期限就像踏脚石,是种有用的指标,能知道专题是如期进行,或是进度落后。作者可以从中知道自己可以喘口气休息一下,或者需要再加把劲。如果有稳定的进展,就不必匆匆忙忙赶进度。论文研究与写作应该避免急就章,因为这种结果必然不理想。期中截止期限能帮助你按部就班进行。

Way # 3 – Develop and employ systems
建议三:制定并善用有系统的方法

Writers of academic papers can be as guilty as any other kind of writer in believing that inspiration rules the creative process. While we should never underestimate how much inspiration can contribute to a creative enterprise, the fact is that perspiration and planning also are important to success. After all, creative geniuses whose brains deliver blinding flashes of inspiration often need their work systematically organized, edited, and prepared for publication.
写作学术论文就像其他写作一样,如果你以为写作主要仰赖灵感,那就大错特错了。虽然对于困难的创作来说,灵感确实不可忽视,但是要成功,辛勤工作与计划也不可或缺。毕竟,创意天才即使脑中常闪现令人目眩神迷的灵光,但文章要发表,仍然需要有系统的组织、编辑与准备。

So even if you are a creative genius, your work will only be helped by becoming systematic in your approach to it. Like deadlines, systems are external aids through which a writer can channel his energy. Systems are like doors and stairs and sidewalks: They assist a writer in getting from Point A to Point E—the end. One such system is a work schedule. A writer who systematically works on a project for a set number of hours each designated work day is a disciplined worker.
所以,就算脑中灵感源源不绝,仍必须有系统地工作。有系统的方法就像截稿期限一样,是种外在的机制,有助作者专注投入心力。有系统的方法就像一道道门、一节节阶梯,以及一条条道路,让你从起点甲地,通往终点戊地。时程规划就是一种有系统的方法,让你在每个固定的工作天,投入固定的时间,规律执行一项计划,有纪律地工作。

Another system is organized research and note-taking. A researcher who flips willy-nilly through research volumes, making abstract notes on odd pieces of paper and in margins, is sure to waste time later revisiting the same text. The same is true of a researcher who doesn’t review his findings systematically each day to see where they are taking him. Such reviews can organize a paper in the mind. Being systematic is a key way to pace yourself and conserve your energy.
另一种有系统的方式,则是有组织地研究与作笔记。如果只是有一搭没一搭地翻翻研究资料,随便拿张纸或在书页边缘写几句模糊的笔记,之后必然得浪费时间修改这些笔记。同样地,如果研究者没有每天系统地回顾一下当天的发现,了解研究进展,日后也得多花时间。回顾研究发现能在心中组织论文。做事有系统,才能按部就班,节省心力。

Way # 4 – Know your writing strengths and weaknesses
建议四:了解自己写作的长短处

The Greeks advised subsequent generations of mankind to “know thyself.” The adage acknowledges the difficulty an individual has in sorting through the many facets of his being and honestly acknowledging his character. We tend to make excuses or to wishfully inflate our abilities. An academic writer is no less prone to glossing over weaknesses. A long-term writing project is no place to fool oneself. Rather, it is when a writer should practice total self-honesty. 
希腊人有句忠告流传后世:「了解你自己」。这句格言说明,一个人要了解自己的特性,坦白面对自己的个性,其实并不容易。人容易为自己找借口,或一厢情愿地夸大自己的能力,写作学术文章时也不例外,倾向粉饰自己的缺点。但论文写作需要花很长时间,就不能自欺欺人。此时,作者应该练习完全坦率面对自己的能力。

Do you have the imagination and predisposition to “see” the general outline of a paper as you research it? Some writers can easily extrapolate what they know and roughly project it into a finished written product before they ever begin the actual word-by-word creative process. Or maybe your strength is your vocabulary. If you are word rich, enrich your paper. (Be careful, though, not to lard your paper with so much erudite language that it begins to get in the way.)
研究时,是否有足够的想象力与天赋,「看出」论文的全貌?有些研究者在逐字撰写论文前,就能轻松从已知推断论文完稿的样貌。或者文采是你的强项?若你词藻丰富,大可用来充实自己的论文(只是要小心,不要堆砌太多深奥的词汇,以免妨碍阅读)。

Just as important is to know your weaknesses. Do you have difficulty concentrating for effective lengths of time? Do you write half an hour and then take an hour’s break? This is a problem. Recognize it and either schedule plenty of time for the project or learn to lengthen your focus. Do you habitually and extensively rewrite? Plan to finish a first draft in time to allow for successive ones. In short, pace yourself according to your actual writing skills and habits, not imagined ones.
认识自己的缺点也一样重要。你是否很难长时间集中精神?会不会每写半小时就休息一小时?你必须认清这个问题,或预留大量时间完成文章,或学习长时间保持专注。你是否习惯大幅修改重写?你必须规划及早完成初稿,后续才有时间修改。简言之,你不能仰赖自以为是的技巧与习惯,必须根据实际的技巧与习惯,按部就班写作论文。

Way # 5 – Anticipate: Learn to avoid surprises
建议五:防范未然,临事不乱

It is said the best laid plans of mice and men come to naught when the unexpected circumstance intrudes. The moral is, all the careful planning in the world will not guarantee that a writing project will come together without incident. That’s what makes life interesting! Even so, there is no joy in running into an obstacle with a paper’s deadline looming. The best way to avoid such crises is to anticipate them and to build into your schedule time to respond to them.
曾有人说,人鼠之间拟定的计划再如何周详,意外搅局时,仍将化为泡影。 其中教训是,世事难料,尽管仔细规划,写论文难保不会有意外。人生因此而精采,但论文截止在即,遇到这种麻烦可就不精彩了。要预防这类问题,最好的方法就是事先防范,安排时间以备处理问题。

Example: When compiling a list of sources and citations, look at each one’s potential for rejection. Sometimes a cited source is deemed to be irrelevant to subject matter, perhaps because his authority and credentials have been superseded by more recent research. Or a citation from a document might be discounted because the document lacks academic standing. Be critical of source material so that your professor can’t shock you late in the day by rejecting parts of it.
举例来说,整理数据源和引用文献清单时,应该检查每一项资料是否可能遭到否决。有时一项数据的威信与可靠度可能遭到最近的研究推翻,因此不再适合引用;或者引用的来源文章学术价值不高,而使效果打折扣。整理引用文献时要仔细检查,以免教授事到临头不赞同某些引用,让你手足无措。

Also, be an editor as well as a writer. Not only examine your paper for grammar and similar writing issues, examine it for content. Ask yourself tough questions: Is this section weak because I have tried to stretch research material too far? Does the conclusion really work, reflecting the introduction and accurately summarizing the body of the paper? Is that illustration effective or just pretty? If you are tough on yourself along the way, a professor can’t surprise you at the end.
此外,除了写论文,也要从编辑的角度观察论文,除了检查文法一类的写作问题,也应该注意文章内容。严格自问:这一段是否因为推论过度而使说服力薄弱?结论是否与引言首尾呼应,确实总结全文?举证是否有助理解,或仅为妆点之用?如果写论文时从头至尾严以律己,就不必担心最后有什么事会出乎意料了。

Way # 6 – Beware of breathers, plateaus and other obstacles
建议六:小心写作的喘息、高原期和其他障碍

An academic writing project can be a slog. The first stage of it sometimes produces anxiety, and only later as the work progresses does exhilaration set in. But at some point the project takes on all the characteristics of work, and a writer begins to think in terms of taking a breather. Beware of breathers. The need to take a breather is a signal that a pace of a project is not sustainable. A correct pace is steady, but not exhausting; regular breathing should be sufficient for the job. 
学术写作可能变得很苦闷,苦闷的第一阶段是焦虑,只有等工作有了进展,心情才会逐渐开朗。不过到了某个阶段,工作的辛苦在写作中展露无遗,让写作的人想停下来喘息。请注意,如果你想停下来喘息,就代表这个写作步调无法让你持续写作。正确的步调让你有稳定进展,却不会筋疲力尽,只要固定休息,就应该能继续工作。

A plateau is another danger point. A plateau occurs when a writer completes a section of research or of writing—and stops. He has climbed a foothill and wants to gaze back upon it. Thus does premature satisfaction become a barrier to progress. It becomes an excuse to hang around rather than press ahead. While interim goals are important in a research-writing project, they are way stations, not ultimate destinations. Dawdling over them leads nowhere.
而高原是另一个阻碍;高原是指完成研究或写作的某一个段落,然后就停下来了。作者爬上了一个小山丘,然后想回头张望。所以,一开始就志得意满只会阻碍进步,让作者停滞不前,尽管期中目标对写作很重要,但却只是中途的停靠站,而不是最终的目的地。裹足不前终将一事无成。

In short, don’t let a good start on a paper go to waste because you lost your way. Don’t get too satisfied too early. Clearly, solid research by itself is not enough. Neither is a great lead, a content-rich middle section, or a well-organized conclusion. Succeeding in any one of these does not constitute overall success. A professor looks at the complete package, and a writer must do the same. So, take a deep breath, take pride in good work done on a section, and then move on.
简言之,论文写作有了好的开始,别因为迷失方向而浪费了,切勿一开始就洋洋自得。只有扎实的研究显然不够,好的开头、内容丰富的中间章节,或结构严谨的结尾,也显然不够。在这几个部分的其中一些做得好,不代表整篇文章成功。教授注意的是整体内容,你写作时也应该如此。所以,深吸一口气,好好欣赏自己某一阶段的表现,然 后继续迈进。

Way # 7 – Don’t tire in the homestretch
建议七:别在最后冲刺时泄气

Every writing project has an end. You can see it from the beginning, and catch glimpses of it as you move through a paper. Inexplicably, some writers slow their progress with the end near at hand, sometimes stopping altogether. You can tell a professional academic writer from a wannabe: The pro doesn’t quit until he has crossed the finish line. The key to finishing strongly is to establish and maintain a writing pace that finds you still with psychic energy at the end.
每个写作计划都有终点,刚开始时你看得见,写作时也隐约看得见。奇怪的是,终点近在咫尺时,有些人却会慢下脚步,甚至完全停步。专业学术作者与业余作者的差别就在这里:专业人士不到终点不会停止。要全力冲过终点线,关键是制定适切的写作步调,并且保持下去,才能到最后依然保持干劲。

Long-form projects such as scholarly papers can be exhausting as writers try to wed research data and findings with polished writing that expresses original thinking. This is not child’s play. But what ultimately separates good writers from bad is how they wrap up a paper. A piece that wanders off in its latter stages and concludes weakly gives back all the goodwill it built up in earlier sections. No part of a paper can stand to be weak, especially the concluding section.
学位论文等长期写作,必须努力用优美精炼的文笔,结合研究数据与发现,表达原创性的想法,过程非常累人,绝非儿戏。而好坏作家间最大的差别,就在他们的文章怎么收尾。如果后半部分偏离主题,结论疲软无力,可就前功尽弃了。文章没有一个部分可以松懈薄弱,结论尤其如此。

Psychic energy is what an individual draws on for inspiration and second-effort resolve. It is how a person is able to maintain a high standard of writing when he is dog-tired of a project. Learn to recognize telltale signs of mental weariness, such as a sudden willingness to settle for “good enough” or an unwillingness to check the spelling of a suspect word. These are the letdowns that erode a fine paper into a substandard one. Demand excellence of yourself from beginning to end.
写作时寻找灵感、尝试再次解决问题时,就需要干劲。有了干劲,才能在写作后半段疲累不堪时,仍然保持高写作标准。你应该学会辨认心理疲劳的蛛丝马迹,例如突然觉得「过得去」就好,或是不想检查可能有问题的拼字。这样得过且过会侵蚀原本出色的文章,让文章变得平庸。记得自始至终都应该要求自己、追求卓越。
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